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Welcome to Terraview!
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General

Everything about us, agritech, intelligent viticulture, and smart farming.

What is Agtech/Agritech?
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Agricultural technology or agrotechnology, also called agrotech or agritech, is the use of technology in agriculture, horticulture, and aquaculture with the aim of improving yield, efficiency, and profitability. Agricultural technology can be products, services or applications derived from agriculture that improve various input/output processes.

What is smart agriculture / smart farming?
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Smart Farming is a concept of farming management using modern Information and Communication Technologies to increase the quantity and quality of products.

Among the technologies available for present-day farmers there are:

  • Sensing technologies, including soil scanning, water, light, humidity, temperature management;
  • Software applications — specialized software solutions that target specific farm types;
  • Communication technologies, such as cellular communication;
  • Positioning technologies, including GPS;
  • Hardware and software systems that enable IoT-based solutions, robotics and automation; and
  • Data analytics, that underlies the decision making and prediction processes.
What do you mean by Intelligent Viticulture/Precision Viticulture?
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Precision viticulture is precision farming applied to optimize vineyard performance, in particular maximizing grape yield and quality while minimizing environmental impacts and risk. This is accomplished by measuring local variation in factors that influence grape yield and quality (soil, topography, microclimate, vine health, etc.) and applying appropriate viticulture management practices (trellis design, pruning, fertilizer application, irrigation, timing of harvest, etc.).

Precision viticulture is based on the premise that high in-field variability for factors that affect vine growth and grape ripening warrants intensive management customized according to local conditions. Precision viticulture depends on new and emerging technologies such as global positioning systems (GPS), meteorological and other environmental sensors, satellite and airborne remote sensing, and geographic information systems (GIS) to assess and respond to variability.

Terraview is taking precision viticulture to the next level by making the decision making intelligent using Artificial Intelligence (AI).

Intelligent Viticulture enables Precision Viticulture by computing various data sources like weather, soil, thermal imaging, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging and more and learns to recommend, predict and enable decision making for the vineyards.

Is Terraview a WineTech / VineTech company?
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Terraview is a technology company focussed on the global wine ecosystem. Given it’s focus, it can be classified as a WineTech/Vine Tech company.

Is there a minimum area that I need to have to use the platform?
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No! You can start with as small as 2-5HA and go upto 2000HA. Our platform is built to handle all area sizes.

How does Climate change affect my wine production?
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Many of the world's prime wine-growing regions could shrink dramatically due to human-caused climate change, a study has said. This is because wine grapes are extremely sensitive to the changes in temperature and season that come with climate change.

In fact, if the global temperature rises by 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit by 2100, the regions of the world that are suitable for growing wine grapes could shrink by as much as 56% , according to the study. And with 7.2 degrees of warming, 85% of those lands would no longer be able to produce good wines.

What is Remote Sensing?
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Remote sensing is the science of obtaining the physical properties of an area without being there. It measures emitted and reflected radiation captured typically from sensors on airplanes, satellites and drones. Active and passive are the two types of remote sensing.

What is IoF (Iot in Farming)?
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IoF in agriculture could be a life changer for humanity and the whole planet. Currently, we witness how extreme weather, deteriorating soil and drying lands, collapsing ecosystems that play a crucial role in agriculture make food production harder and harder. Today, a driving force behind increased agricultural production at a lower cost is the Internet of Things (IoT)

Monitoring plant and soil conditions is a simple use case—but it can lead to a fantastic return on investment for farmers. We’ve seen several great uses for agriculture IoT in this space:

  • Sensing for soil moisture and nutrients.
  • Controlling water usage for optimal plant growth.
  • Determining custom fertilizer profiles based on soil chemistry.
  • Determining the optimal time to plant and harvest.
  • Reporting weather conditions.

Payment

Billing, payment, subscription plans, and everything about about our customer service.

How is the Base plan different from the Pro and Enterprise plans?
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The largest difference is the data source. In the Base plan, you have access to Sentinel satellite, whereas with Pro and Enterprise you get access to Drone Imagery, Terraview Satellites* and a host of other 3rd-party Satellites.

The Pro and Enterprise also offer AI recommendations on your harvest, plantation and also gives you access to climate change data prediction and analysis relevant to your plantation.

Can I use the terraview platform for free?
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Yes! Terraview offers a 30-day trial period for all our plans. You can also upgrade to a higher plan whenever you feel like.

What happens when I change plans?
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Upgrading or downgrading your plan is very seamless and simple. Your account will be charged or credited based on the percentage of the billing cycle left at the time the plan was changed.

What happens if I cancel my paid plan?
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When you cancel your plan, you will remain on the plan until the end of your billing cycle, at which time the plan will be cancelled.

Do I get to do automated irrigation as part of the Enterprise plan?
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Yes, Terraview’s platform enables you to run automated irrigation at the single click of a button. You will get basic Terraview recommended hardware to drive automation for 20HA, for additional field automation hardware that needs to be bought separately. Terraview helps you with that.

Do you have monthly and yearly billing options?
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Yes! We offer either monthly or yearly billing options. The yearly billing option is always cheaper (usually ~20% discount). For example, the Pro plan is €199/HA/year per member per month in t he monthly option, but €159/HA/year in the yearly option.

Can I change my payment method?
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You can change your payment method at any time in your billing settings.

What happens if my payment fails? E.g. an expired credit card.
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Your account email will be notified after each failed payment. Payments may be retried up to 4 times within the next month. After this, if the payment did not succeed, you will be downgraded to the free plan.

What if I run out of storage space?
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You can get unlimited storage space by paying additional €10/HA/year.

Do you offer refunds?
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We don't offer refunds, however we do have an account credit system. If your plan decreases during your billing period, your account will be credited accordingly, and the next time your account is charged, any remaining balance will be used before creating a new charge.

Do you have a Service-Level Agreements (SLA)?
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We do not offer a standard SLA. For enterprise plan with greater than 1000HA, we can offer a custom SLA. Please contact us for details.

How is the payment being processed?
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We use Stripe to process your payment. It's the same payment provider used in products such as Twitter, Pinterest, and Lyft. We do not handle your credit card information directly.

How is the Vine Click Base plan different from the Pro plans?
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The largest difference is the number of diagnosis. In the base plan, you get 10 diagnosis every month whereas with the Pro version you can get unlimited diagnosis. The Pro version also gives you access to Augmented Reality which helps you do yield estimation for your plantation.

Do you have monthly and yearly billing options for Vine Click?
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Yes! We offer either monthly or yearly billing options.

How does adding and removing members work for the pro version in Vine Click?
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Whether you are using monthly or yearly billing, your account may be charged on a monthly basis. If members are added, your account will be charged a prorated amount based on the percentage of the billing cycle left at the time each member was added. If your usage decreased, your account will be credited in the same way.

What if I run out of storage space for my app?
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You can get unlimited storage space by paying additional €10/user/year.

What happens when I change plans in Vine click app?
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Upgrading or downgrading your plan is similar to adding members. Your account will be charged or credited based on the percentage of the billing cycle left at the time the plan was changed.

Do you have a Service-Level Agreements (SLA) for vine click app?
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We do not offer a standard SLA. For teams with greater than 100 members, we can offer a custom SLA. Please contact us for details.

Hardware

The tools, sensors, and instrumentarium we use to achieve the claimed results.

The details about IoT, the incredible drone technologies and our satellite program.

Do I have to buy the any sensors or drones?
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No absolutely not. The plan comes with drone flights and high end sensors included in the Pricing.

What tools are used in precision viticulture?
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Precision Viticulture uses a variety of tools like global positioning system, geographical information system (GIS), variable rate technology, yield monitors and maps, remote sensors, proximate sensors and computer hardware and software.

Can my sensors/actuators be integrated?
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Yes! Terraview can take data from many different sources from Satellite, drones and on-the-ground devices (sensors, actuators). For more information please contact us so we can help you with your needs.

What other sensing does Terraview support?
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Many! Terraview can support many different inputs, from sensors all the way to satellites. This is made possible through our innovative platform. For more information please contact us so we can help you with your needs.

What sensors are used for wine making?
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Oxygen Sensors to measure dissolved oxygen in the wine or the concentration of oxygen in the form of gas. Excess oxygen can give origin to the oxidation resulting in the alteration of wine color and aroma, and premature aging. Sensor PH to measure the acidity of the wine typically between 2.8 to 2.9 (high acidity) and 3.8 to 3.9 (low acidity) Turbidity Sensor to measure the clarity of wine sought after by consumer and indicating stability of the wine, if it keeps in the bottle over time.

Biosesnors for the analysis of the wine and the measurement of various parameters such as lactic acid, malic acid etc Conductivity Sensor to verify the level of stability of the wine and avoid excessive tannins, unstable proteins and deterioration of phenolic compounds. Sensor Sugar to measure the sugar content from which it depends the alcohol strength. CO2 Sensor to measure the CO2 content in sparkling wine.

What is UAV?
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A UAV is an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. They are able to fly remotely (such as with a controller or tablet) or autonomously.

Drones are a common UAV used in multiple industries.

How do drones work in vineyards?
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From searching out leaf roll to assessing vine vigor, many vineyard managers turn to the skies for intelligence gathering. Some still rely on satellite imaging or documentation gathered from airplane surveillance, but a growing number are opting for something smaller, nimbler, and more efficient to fly: drones.

Because a drone has the ability to fly much closer to the canopy, it provides a more detailed look at individual vineyard areas. Where satellites might provide 2-meter resolution, drones can provide 2.5-centimeter resolution. Grape growers can use drones to assess a vineyard more frequently. Observing a vineyard aerially 5 or 10 times a season, rather than making an assessment based on a single fixed-wing flyover, enables vintners to assess the progression of leaf roll, for instance, or see how irrigation choices are affecting vigor in a particular block.

Technology & Data

Important points about the core of our platform – artificial intelligence.

Automation, AR, ML, data mesurements, and processing.

How is canopy temperature measured?
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Canopy cover is the layer formed by the branches and crowns of plants or trees. The cover can be continuous, as in primary forests, or discontinuous - with gaps - as in orchards. Canopies in tropical and temperate forests can be important habitats for many animals and plants.

A dense canopy cover will let little light reach the ground and will lower temperatures. The canopy protects the ground from the force of rainfall and makes wind force more moderate. Thus, habitat conditions on the ground are shaped by the degree of canopy cover.

Canopy cover is measured as the proportion of a fixed area of the ground covered by tree crowns. The canopy cover will be determined by the tree species, as they have different crown sizes, shapes, and heights.

Tree canopy measurements are important for various reasons:

• The canopy can be affected by the health of a tree, which in turn is affected by nutrition, water access, disease, pest infestations, and stress. Thus, canopy cover acts as an indicator of these factors for both natural as well as cultivated groves and forests.

• The efficiency of fertilization, irrigation, and pruning methods in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture also affect the canopy cover, so its measurement sheds light on these factors as well. In forests, canopy cover is also used to study the effects of fire, pollution hazards, and microclimate. The impact of forest use, in terms of deforestation, degradation, thinning or afforestation, can also be evaluated by canopy cover. The canopies of forests and other natural vegetation are important in watershed areas for replenishing groundwater and hydrology, so they need to be monitored.

How are satellites used in wine making?
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Wine makers can use images captured and transmitted by satellites in orbit and enter them into geographic information system (GIS) software to generate detailed vineyard maps. The images are sharp enough to let the entire vineyard be divided into 2-meter square blocks, and the software is capable of recording elevation, slope, soil condition and water retention ability for each block. It still requires walking the vineyard to gather that information, but the result is a digital asset of enormous value in getting the most from the land. Using it, winegrowers can determine the best grape, plant spacing, arrangement of rows and irrigation or drainage for each 2-meter block.

Infrared detection from space can reveal much more. Specialized satellites beam infrared light at the ground and receive reflections. These can be analyzed to produce something called a normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), which accurately measures the amount of leaf area in each 2-meter block. By taking repeated scans through the growing season, winegrowers can get a detailed block-by-block analysis of the all-important vigor. They can then focus their attention on blocks where there is too much or too little, and apply the time-honored practices of winegrowing to reduce or increase it. The result is lower labor cost, higher productivity and grapes of a more consistent quality year in and year out.

How can I use Artificial intelligence (AI) for crop yield
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A modest estimate puts 75 million IoT agricultural devices in use by 2020 and 4.1 million daily data points per farm by 2050. The volume of data -- collected through technologies ranging from farm machinery to drone imagery -- is too abundant for humans to process. Farmers and agricultural technology workers are turning to AI to help analyze data points, thus enhancing value derived from these data sources.

Farms produce hundreds of thousands of data points on the ground each day. With the implementation of agricultural AI, farmers can now analyze weather conditions, temperature, water usage or soil conditions collected from their farm to inform decisions. AI technologies are helping determine the feasible crop choices or which hybrid seeds will increase profit and decrease waste.

In addition to ground data, computer vision and deep learning algorithms process data captured from drones and unmanned aircraft systems. AI combined with unmanned aircraft systems and drones can capture images of the entire farm and analyze the images in near-real time -- monitoring and analyzing soil health and condition of crops across the entire farm, as well as identifying problem areas.

How can Augmented Reality help my vineyard?
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Augmented reality is the blending of interactive digital elements like dazzling visual overlays, buzzy haptic feedback, or other sensory projections into our real world environments. A technology that superimposes a computer generated image on a user's view of the real world, thus providing a composite view.

Augmented reality in viticulture plays a metamorphic role in the field – check and pest/insect detection process. Moreover, it also determines the soil properties and crop to be sown in a particular piece of land. AR helps in understanding pest and crop conditions just by looking at the application. AR can also help you do any yield estimation of your plantation.

How is machine learning used in agriculture?
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The mechanism that drives Smart Farming is Machine Learning — the scientific field that gives machines the ability to learn without being strictly programmed. It has emerged together with big data technologies and high-performance computing to create new opportunities to unravel, quantify, and understand data intensive processes in agricultural operational environments.

Some use cases
Field conditions management

Soil management
Machine learning algorithms study evaporation processes, soil moisture and temperature to understand the dynamics of ecosystems and the impingement in agriculture.

Water Management
Water management in agriculture impacts hydrological, climatological, and agronomical balance. So far, the most developed ML-based applications are connected with estimation of daily, weekly, or monthly evapotranspiration allowing for a more effective use of irrigation systems and prediction of daily dew point temperature, which helps identify expected weather phenomena and estimate evapotranspiration and evaporation

Yield Prediction
Yield prediction is one of the most important and popular topics in precision agriculture as it defines yield mapping and estimation, matching of crop supply with demand, and crop management. State-of the-art approaches have gone far beyond simple prediction based on the historical data, but incorporate computer vision technologies to provide data on the go and comprehensive multidimensional analysis of crops, weather, and economic conditions to make the most of the yield for farmers and population.

Crop Quality
The accurate detection and classification of crop quality characteristics can increase product price and reduce waste. In comparison with the human experts, machines can make use of seemingly meaningless data and interconnections to reveal new qualities playing role in the overall quality of the crops and to detect them.

Disease Detection
Both in open-air and greenhouse conditions, the most widely used practice in pest and disease control is to uniformly spray pesticides over the cropping area. To be effective, this approach requires significant amounts of pesticides which results in a high financial and significant environmental cost. ML is used as a part of the general precision agriculture management, where agro-chemicals input is targeted in terms of time, place and affected plants.

Weed Detection
Apart from diseases, weeds are the most important threats to crop production. The biggest problem in weeds fighting is that they are difficult to detect and discriminate from crops. Computer vision and ML algorithms can improve detection and discrimination of weeds at low cost and with no environmental issues and side effects. In future, these technologies will drive robots that will destroy weeds, minimizing the need for herbicides.

How can image processing help agriculture?
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Image processing can be used for pest management detection of insects, identification of nutrient deficiencies and plant content, fruits quality inspection, grading of agricultural products like fruits vegetables, crop and land estimation and object tracking.

Are there alternatives to using imagery as a basis for vineyard analysis?
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Yes! Not only can Terraview analyse imagery of your vineyard, we also support data that comes from on-the-ground devices that sense the health of your crop.

How can weather data influence my vineyard production?
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Wine industry is using information technology as a way to more quickly adapt to the uncertainties of nature. The newest weather stations provide real-time, site-specific data, allowing growers to instantly and precisely monitor weather conditions at specific vineyard locations, including multiple locations simultaneously. They even assist vineyard developers in evaluating sites for potential development.

Identifying and tracking weather conditions in the vineyard allows growers to make informed weather-related decisions, saving time and money, and ultimately improving the quality of the fruit. More accurately detecting weather parameters and soil moisture, and acting on this information, also results in more reliable frost protection, the ability to irrigate based on demand, and, over time, the capacity to employ pest and disease models that will indicate if and when spraying is necessary.

How does Terraview measure soil moisture in vineyards?
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The measurement of soil moisture is important in the evaluation and application of some vineyard management practices. Regulated deficit irrigation, partial root-zone drying, soil structure modification or mulching can be applied to improve winegrape quality or save water. Soil moisture monitoring is used to measure the effects of management practices on:

  • Vine water stress;
  • Vineyard evapotranspiration;
  • Root system extent;
  • Irrigation wetting pattern;
  • Changes in soil water holding capacity;
  • Rainfall infiltration

Terraview uses Drone and Satellite Imagery alongwith on ground sensors and passes it through its AI Platform to provide information on Soil Moisture.